1.
How can you describe the projectives?
Correct Answer
B. Factored out
Explanation
The term "factored out" refers to the process of removing or isolating a specific component or factor from a larger system or equation. In the context of describing the projectives, it means that certain elements or factors have been separated or extracted from the project, possibly to simplify or focus on specific aspects. This could involve removing unnecessary variables, streamlining processes, or isolating particular components for analysis or optimization.
2.
What is a vector space together with a non-associative bilinear map?
Correct Answer
C. Lie algebra
Explanation
A vector space together with a non-associative bilinear map is known as a Lie algebra. In a Lie algebra, the bilinear map, called the Lie bracket, satisfies the properties of skew-symmetry, bilinearity, and the Jacobi identity. Lie algebras are fundamental structures in mathematics and physics, particularly in the study of Lie groups, which are differentiable manifolds with a group structure. The Lie algebra of a Lie group provides important information about the group's structure and properties. Therefore, the correct answer is Lie algebra.
3.
Which property of a binary operation describes how the order of evaluation affects the result of the operation?
Correct Answer
D. Jacobi identity
Explanation
The Jacobi identity is a property of a binary operation that describes how the order of evaluation affects the result of the operation. It states that for any three elements in the set on which the operation is defined, the operation applied to the first element and the result of applying the operation to the second and third elements, is equal to the operation applied to the second element and the result of applying the operation to the first and third elements. This property is important in algebraic structures such as Lie algebras and Poisson algebras.
4.
What is a function that has derivatives of all orders everywhere in its domain?
Correct Answer
A. Smooth function
Explanation
A smooth function is a function that has derivatives of all orders everywhere in its domain. This means that the function is continuously differentiable, and its derivative exists at every point in its domain. A smooth function has a well-behaved graph without abrupt changes or corners. It is a fundamental concept in calculus and is used to model many real-world phenomena. Examples of smooth functions include polynomials, trigonometric functions, and exponential functions.
5.
What is the classification of functions according to the properties of their derivatives?
Correct Answer
B. Differentiability class
Explanation
The classification of functions according to the properties of their derivatives is referred to as the differentiability class. This classification categorizes functions based on the number of times they can be differentiated and the continuity of their derivatives. Functions in the differentiability class can range from being continuously differentiable to having derivatives of all orders. This classification is important in the study of calculus and helps in understanding the behavior and properties of functions.
6.
Which is not a feature of a Lie bracket?
Correct Answer
D. Rigid
Explanation
The feature of being "rigid" is not a characteristic of a Lie bracket. A Lie bracket is a binary operation that is bilinear, meaning it is linear in both of its arguments. It is also alternative, which means it satisfies the Jacobi identity. Additionally, a Lie bracket is anti-commutative, meaning the order of the operands affects the sign of the result. However, being "rigid" is not a property typically associated with a Lie bracket.
7.
Levi's theorem says that a finite-dimensional Lie algebra is a semidirect product of its radical and what?
The...
Correct Answer
A. Complementary subalgebra
Explanation
Levi's theorem states that a finite-dimensional Lie algebra can be expressed as a semidirect product of its radical and a complementary subalgebra. The radical of a Lie algebra is the largest solvable ideal contained in it. The complementary subalgebra is a subalgebra that, together with the radical, forms a direct sum of the original Lie algebra. This theorem provides a way to decompose a Lie algebra into simpler components, making it easier to study and understand its structure.
8.
If the lower central series of a Lie algebra becomes zero eventually, what is it termed?
Correct Answer
B. Nilpotent
Explanation
If the lower central series of a Lie algebra becomes zero eventually, it is termed as "Nilpotent".
9.
If a Lie algebra has no non-trivial ideals and is not abelian, what is it termed?
Correct Answer
C. Simple
Explanation
If a Lie algebra has no non-trivial ideals and is not abelian, it is termed as "Simple". A simple Lie algebra is one that cannot be decomposed into non-trivial ideals, meaning it does not have any proper subalgebras that are also ideals. This property makes simple Lie algebras important in the study of Lie groups and their representations.
10.
If a Lie algebra is isomorphic to a direct sum of simple algebras, what is it called?
Correct Answer
D. Semi-simple
Explanation
A Lie algebra is called semi-simple if it is isomorphic to a direct sum of simple algebras. This means that the Lie algebra can be decomposed into a direct sum of smaller, irreducible Lie algebras that have no non-trivial ideals. In other words, a semi-simple Lie algebra does not have any proper, non-trivial subalgebras.